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Rare cells in the body that are the source for maintaining the integrity of tissues over a lifetime; capable of generating all cell types within a tissue.
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The formation of new blood vessels.
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Tests to quantitatively determine the presence, concentration or potency of a drug.
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A characteristic that is objectively measured and evaluated as an indicator of normal biologic or pathogenic responses or pharmacological responses to a therapeutic or other intervention.
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Class of diseases characterised by uncontrolled cellular growth without differentiation; ability of these cells to spread throughout the body and disrupt its normal functions.
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A sub-population of mutated, undifferentiated cells from which cancers are derived and maintained (see Adult Stem Cells).
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CD4+CD62L+ T cells are isolated from the spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of balb/c mice by magnetic bead separation techniques and transferred by intraperitoneal injection to CB-17 scid recipient mice.
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A protein that binds a specific cell regulator and activates a cellular response. Cell receptors are targets for drug development, either by cell regulators or small molecule drugs.
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A molecule, often a protein circulating in the blood that binds to its cell receptor to activate a biological response.
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A cosmetic with a biologically active component; currently not regulated by governments (e.g. FDA).
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A biological indicator used to quantitatively measure or evaluate pharmacologic responses to drugs; involved from discovery to marketed drug to determine drug exposure, toxicity, patient selection, and efficacy.
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The process of generating increasingly defined types of functional cells in a tissue; integral part of regenerating tissues.
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The process of advancing a compound from discovery to an approved drug; includes preclinical development (safety and efficacy), manufacturing, government regulation, and clinical stages.
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Cells derived from early embryos that have the capability of generating every tissue in the body including an entire new offspring.
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Thin layer of tissue that provides a barrier between the body and its environment. Varies in its complexity and functions depending on the body site; includes the lining of the intestine, mouth, skin, hair follicle, breast and prostate tissues.
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Gene expression analysis using the Affymetrix GeneChip(r) system enabling simultaneous measurement of the RNA levels of many thousands of genes
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Genes are the blueprint for proteins, which are responsible for regulating cells. Profiling technology determines the level of individual gene products within a cell.
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A pharmaceutical product that is manufactured after the expiry date of patents and other exclusive rights from the original manufacturer; equivalent to original drug but usually costs less.
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Animals deficient in the capacity to express IL-10, an important cytokine in moderating pro-inflammatory responses.
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Localisation of antigens ( such as proteins)  using labelled antibodies in cells and tissues.
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Refers primarily to two chronic diseases that cause inflammation of the intestines: ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. These diseases are characterised by cycles of mucosal injury and ulceration followed by regeneration and restored tissue function.
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A common, debilitating side effect of cancer therapy that involves destruction of the epithelium in the mouth and gut, leading to ulceration and functional impairment, increased risk of infection and treatment delays; patient suffering manifested by loss of appetite, diarrhoea, and wasting.
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A branch of medicine that seeks to understand the development, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
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Adjunctive therapy in oncology responsible for reducing the toxic side effects of cancer therapy; includes drugs to restore tissue integrity and function in the bone marrow and epithelium and also drugs to treat nausea, diarrhoea and pain.
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The study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and the mechanisms of their actions
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The stage in drug development between discovery of the drug candidate and initiating clinical trials. Efficacy testing determines the reproducibility of the biological activity and provides insights into dose and dose scheduling of the drug candidate.
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The process by which one cell replicates its genetic information, divides, and makes two descendent cells; integral part of regenerating tissues.
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Real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction
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Typically a synthesised chemical compound that interacts with the biological machinery of cells in the body.
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Tissue or organs transplanted from one species to another.
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